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Fluid Power Formulas | Oil Recommendations |
| Cylinders | Pumps | Valves | Glossary of Terms |

[Basic]   [Fluid]   [Pump]   [Cylinder]   [Thermal]   [Accumulator]
[Volume & Capacity Equivalents

Basic Formulas
Formula For: Word Formula Letter Formula
Fluid Pressure
In Pounds/Square Inch
Pressure = fluid_pressure P = fluid_pressure or
psi = fluid_pressure_l.gif (125 bytes)
Fluid Fow Rate
In Gallons/Minute
Flow Rate = fluid_flow_rate Q = fluid_flow_rate
Fluid Power
In Horsepower
Horsepower = horsepower HP = horsepower

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Fluid Formulas
Formula For: Word Formula Letter Formula
Velocity Through Piping
In Feet/Second Velocity
Velocity =velocity V = velocity
Compressibility of Oil
In Additional Required Oil To Reach Pressure
Additional =
add_volume Volume
VA = add_volume
* Approximately 1/2 % per 100 psi
Compressibility of a Fluid Compressibility = compressibility C()=compressibility
Specific Gravity of a Fluid Specific =
specific_gravity Gravity
SG =specific_gravity
Valve (Cv) Flow Factor Valve Factor (Cv) =
valve_factor_cv
Cv = valve_factor_cv
Viscosity in Centistokes For Viscosities of 32 to 100 Saybolt Universal Seconds:
Centistokes = .2253 x SUS - centistokes
CS = .2253 SUS -centistokes
Viscosity in Centistokes For Viscosities of 100 to 240 Saybolt Universal Seconds:
Centistokes = .2193 x SUS - centistokes
CS = .2193 SUS -centistokes
Viscosity in Centistokes For Viscosities Greater Than 240 Saybolt Universal Seconds:
Centistokes = centistokes
CS = centistokes
NOTE: Saybolt Universal Seconds is often abbreviated SSU.

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Pump Formulas
Formula For: Word Formula Letter Formula
Pump Outlet Flow
In Gallons/Minute
Flow =
flow
Q = flow
Pump Input Power
In Horsepower Required
Horsepower Input =
horsepower_input
HPIN =
horsepower_input or horsepower_input
Pump Efficiency
Overall in Percent
Overall Efficiency = overall_efficiency X 100
Overall Efficiency = Volumetric Eff. x Mechanical Eff.
EffQV
overall_efficiency x  100
EffQV
EffVOL x EffMECH
Pump Efficiency
Overall in Percent
Volumetric Efficiency =
volumetric_efficiency x 100
EffVOL =
volumetric_efficiency x 100
Pump Efficiency
Mechanical in Percent
Mechanical Efficiency =
mechanical_efficiency x 100
EffMEC =
mechanical_efficiency x 100
Pump Life
B10 Bearing Life
B10 Hours of Bearing Life =
Rated Life Hours x
pump_life xpump_life
B10  x
pump_life1 xpump_life

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Cylinder Formulas
Formula For: Word Formula Letter Formula
Cylinder Area
In Square Inches
Area = pi x Radius2 (Inches)
Area =  cylinder_area x Diameter2 (Inches)
A = pir2
A = cylinder_area  or  A = .785D2
Cylinder Force
In Pounds, Push or Pull
Force = Pressure (psi) x Net Area (Square Inches) F = psi x A or F = PA
Cylinder Velocity or Speed
n Feet/Second
Velocity = cylinder_velocity V =cylinder_velocity or
V = cylinder_velocity
Cylinder Volume Capacity
In Gallons of Fluid
Velocity = cylinder_volume_capacity
Velocity = cylinder_volume_capacity
V = cylinder_volume_capacity
V = cylinder_volume_capacity   / = Length of Stroke
Cylinder Flow Rate
In Gallons Per Minute
Flow Rate = Q = cylinder_flow_rate or  Q = 3.117vA
Fluid Motor Torque
In Inch Pounds
Torque =  fluid_motor_torque
Torque = fluid_motor_torque
Torque = fluid_motor_torque
T = fluid_motor_torqueor
T = fluid_motor_torque
T = fluid_motor_torque
T = fluid_motor_torque or
T = fluid_motor_torque
Fluid Motor Torque/100 psi
In Inch Pounds
Torque/100 psi = fluid_motor_torque_100psi T100psi = fluid_motor_torque_100psi
Fluid Motor Speed
In Revolutions/Minute
Speed = fluid_motor_speed n = fluid_motor_speed
Fluid Motor Power
In Horsepower Output
Horsepower = fluid_motor_power HP = fluid_motor_power

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Thermal Formulas
Formula For: Word Formula Letter Formula
Reservoir Cooling Capacity
Based on Adequate Air Circulation
Heat (BTU/HR) =
2 x Temperature Difference Between Reservoir Walls And Air (F) x Area of Reservoir (Sq.Ft.)
BTU/Hr = 2.0 x triT x A
Heat in Hydraulic Oil (approx.)
Due to System Inefficiency(SG=.89-.92)
Heat (BTU/HR) =
Flow Rate (GPM) x 210 x Temperature Difference (F)
BTU/HR =
Q x 210 x triT
Heat in Fresh Water (approx.) Heat(BTU/HR) =
Flow Rate (GPM) x 500 x Temperature Difference (F)
BTU/HR =
Q x 500 x triT
Note: One British Thermal Unit (BTU) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree.   Once Horsepower = 2545 BTU/HR.

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Accumulator Formulas
Formula For: Word Formula Letter Formula
Pressure or Volume
w/ Constant "T" (Temperature)
Original Pressure x Original Volume = Final Pressure x Final Volume P1 V1  =  P2 V2   Isothermic
Pressure or Temperature
w/ Constant "V" (Volume)
Original Pressure x Final Temperature = Final Pressure x Original Temperature P1 T1  =  P2 T2   Isochoric
Volume or Temeprature
w/ Constant "P" (Pressure)
Original Volume x Final Temperature =
      Final Volume x Original Temperature
V1 T1  =  V2 T2   Isobaric
Pressure or Volume

w/temperature Change to Heat or Compression
Original Pressure x Original Volumen = Final Pressure x Final Volumen

accumulator_pressure  =  accumulator_pressure  =
  accumulator_pressure
accumulator_pressure = accumulator_pressure = accumulator_pressure
Note: One British Thermal Unit (BTU) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree.   Once Horsepower = 2545 BTU/HR.

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Volume & Capacity Equivalents
  Cubic Inches Cubic Feet Cubic Yards
Cu Inches
Cu Feet
Cu Yards
Liters
U.S. Gallons
Imp. Gallons
Lbs Water
1.0000
1,728.0000
46,656.0000
61.0234
231.0000
277.2740
27.6798
.0005787
1.0000000
27.0000000
.0353145
.1336810
.1605490
.0160184
.00002143
.03703700
1.00000000
.00130800
.00495100
.00594290
.00059290
Volume & Capacity Equivalents
  Liters U.S. Gallons Imperial Gallons Water at Max. Density 39.2F  4C
Pounds of Water Kilograms of Water
Cu Inches
Cu Feet
Cu Yards
Liters
U.S. Gallons
Imp. Gallons
Lbs Water
.016384
28.317000
764.560000
1.000000
3.785430
4.543740
.453592
.0043200
7.4805200
201.9740000
.2641700
1.0000000
1.2003200
.1198250
.0036065
6.2321000
168.2660000
.2200830
.8331110
1.0000000
.0998281
.0361275
62.4283000
1,685.5600000
2.2046200
8.3454500
10.0172000
1.0000000
.0163872
28.3170000
764.5590000
1.0000000
3.7854300
4.5437300
.4535930

 

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