|| Fluid Power Formulas | Oil Recommendations |
| Cylinders | Pumps | Valves | Glossary of Terms |
ACCUMULATOR: A container which stores fluid under pressure.
Used as an energy source or to absorb hydraulic shock. Common
types are piston, bladder and diaphragm.
BLEEDER (BLEED VALVE): A device for removal of pressurized
fluid. Used to bleed air from system.
CAVITATION: A gaseous condition within a liquid stream caused
when pressure is reduced to the vapor pressure. To be avoided
due to destructive effects on pumps and motors.
CIRCUIT; PILOT: Used to control a main circuit or component.
CIRCUIT; REGENERATIVE: Used to increase cylinder speed
by directing rod end discharge to the piston side of the cylinder.
Can be incorporated into directional control valve as fourth position.
CYLINDER: A device which converts hydraulic energy into
linear mechanical motion and force.
CYLINDER; DOUBLE ACTING: A cylinder which can apply force
and motion in either direction.
CYLINDER; SINGLE ACTING: A cylinder which can apply force
in one direction only.
CYLINDER; DEPTH CONTROL: A mechanical or hydraulic device,
adjustable, for limiting cylinder stroke.
CYLINDER; REPHASING: A cylinder design which permits the
use of two or more cylinders in series, automatically synchronizing
cylinder position at the end of each stroke.
DETENT: A spring device which maintains the spool of a
directional control valve in position.
DETENT RELEASE: A mechanical, hydraulic or electrical
device for releasing the detent.
FILTER: A device incorporated into a hydraulic system
to remove contaminants from the oil.
FITTING: A device for connecting hose or pipe to hydraulic components.
FLOAT SPOOL (POSIT10N): A spool valve design which connects
all ports to the tank (return) port, usually in a detented fourth
position, allowing a cylinder or motor to "float".
FLOW RATE: The volume of fluid passing through the system
or component in gal. per min. (or 11m).
FLUID POWER SYSTEM: The transmission and control of power
through the use of fluid pressure.
MOTOR: A device which converts hydraulic energy into rotary
motion, either fixed or variable.
PORT: The internal or external terminus of a passage.
The point where the fitting is attached.
PRESSURE: The force per unit area, expressed in pounds
per square inch (psi), bars, or atmospheres.
PRESSURE; BACK: The pressure encountered on the downstream
or return side of a component.
PRESSURE; CRACKING: The pressure at which a pressure operated
valve begins to pass fluid.
PRESSURE; MAXIMUM RATED: The maximum pressure at which
a component should be operated on a continuous basis, usually
the relief valve setting at maximum flow rate.
PUMP: A device which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic.
energy, either fixed or variable.
RESERVOIR: A container which stores the liquid in a fluid
SEAL: A device which prevents or controls the escape or
passage of hydraulic fluid.
VALVE: A device which controls fluid flow rate, direction,
VALVE; DIRECTIONAL CONTROL: A device for directing or
preventing the oil flow in a system.
OPEN CENTER (TANDEM) TYPE: Has the inlet port connected
to the outlet (tank) port in neutral.
CLOSED CENTER TYPE: Has the inlet port blocked from the
outlet and work ports in neutral.
TWO-WAY: A 2 port valve with inlet and outlet ports.
THREE-WAY: A 3 port valve (in, out ~r,d work) normally
used with a single acting cylinder or uni-directional motor.
FOUR-WAY: A 4 port valve (in, out and 2 work) used with
double acting cylinders, bi-directional motors.
TWO, THREE, FOUR POSITION: The number of positions in
which a valve can be positioned.
SERIES TYPE: A multiple spool valve in which the return
oil from the first spool is directed to the inlet of the second
spool (and from the second to the third, etc.). This type valve
permits simultaneous operation of two or more functions with the
same oil flow. However, the total pressure requirements of all
functions are accumulative.
PARALLEL TYPE: A multiple spool valve in which the inlet
oil is connected to all spools simultaneously. If more than one
spool is actuated, the function requiring the lowest pressure
will operate first.
SERIES-PARALLEL TYPE: A multiple spool valve which has
all spools connected to the open center passage in neutral. However,
when actuated, the upstream valve takes full priority. The return
oil is directed to downstream spools as in a series type valve.
POWER BEYOND (HIGH PRESSURE CARRYOVER): A sleeve attachment
which permits the oil flow from one valve (when in neutral) to
be used by another valve downstream. Hence, a 3-spool valve cou1d
be connected to a 2-spool valve to create a 5-spool valve, The
first valve takes priority and thrust have a separate outlet port
to return oil from an activator back to the reservoir.
LOAD CHECK (LIFT CHECK): A device which prevents a load
from dropping when a valve is shifted, until ample pressure and
flow is available to hold or move the load.